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Knee

Dr.Elgeadi's team has knee traumatologists, specialists in the knee endoscopy technique, which facilitates the recovery and treatment of pathologies and injuries.

Main injuries and knee pathologies

Knee injuries explained

Prof. Dr. Elgeadi

Prof. Dr. Elgeadi focuses mainly on anterior cruciate ligament rupture: learn about its symptoms, preventions and treatments in this video on knee arthroscopy.
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knee arthroscopy

The knee is one of the joints in the human body that suffers the most during normal activities. Injuries among athletes are especially common. Furthermore, this type of pathology can negatively affect the quality of life of patients.

He Prof. Dr. Elgeadi's team It has professional specialists in knee microsurgery in Madrid, recognized both nationally and internationally, allowing the treatment of injuries and recovery with good results.

Resolving doubts…

Patellofemoral syndrome is a common condition that causes pain in the front of the knee.

This pain usually intensifies when going up or down stairs, bending over, or sitting for long periods of time.

Patellofemoral syndrome is due to an imbalance in the alignment of the kneecap, which causes friction and excessive stress on the articular cartilage.

To treat this pathology, physical therapy is recommended to strengthen the thigh muscles, as well as making changes in physical activity.

In more serious cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Chondral lesions are damage to the cartilage of the knee that can manifest as chondromalacia patella (softening of the cartilage behind the kneecap) or osteochondritis dissecans (detachment of the cartilage and underlying bone).

These injuries are usually the result of intense sports activities or direct trauma to the knee.

Symptoms include pain, swelling, and limitation of knee movement.

Treatment can range from physical therapy and pain management medications, to surgery in more severe cases to repair or remove damaged cartilage fragments.

Meniscal injuries are damage to the menisci, which are fibrocartilage structures located in the knee.

These injuries usually occur due to sudden rotational movements or excessive compression forces.

The most common symptoms are pain, swelling, locking of the knee, and a feeling of instability.

Depending on the type and severity of the injury, treatment may include physical therapy, pain medications, or surgery to repair or remove the damaged meniscus.

Knee osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that affects the cartilage of the knee joint.

This pathology causes pain, stiffness and limitation in movement.

Knee osteoarthritis is usually the result of gradual wear and tear of cartilage due to aging, previous injuries, or genetic factors.

Treatment may include physical therapy, pain medications, and lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or using assistive devices.

In advanced cases, knee replacement surgery may be considered.

Knee ligament injuries are common injuries that can include tears or strains of the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL), as well as the lateral ligaments (medial lateral and lateral lateral ligaments).

These injuries are usually caused by sudden rotational movements, sudden changes in direction or direct trauma to the knee.

Treatment can range from physical therapy and use of supportive devices, to reconstructive surgery in more severe cases, especially in ACL or PCL injuries.

Tendinopathy are injuries or disorders in the tendons that connect muscles to bones.

For the knee, common tendinopathies include patellar tendonitis (pain in the patellar tendon) and pes pes tendinopathy (pain in the tendons that attach to the inside of the knee).

These injuries are typically caused by overuse, repetitive strain, or aging, and can cause pain, inflammation, and limitation of movement.

Treatment may include physical therapy, pain medications, rehabilitation therapies, and in some cases, injections or surgery if conservative treatments are not effective.

The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body, being the main joint in the lower part of the human body. The knee joins three of the bones in the lower area, which are the patella, the femur and the tibia.

Its most important functions are to support weight and create stability in the body. The main movement that this joint has to perform is flexion-extension or rotation once the knee is flexed.

Knee arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique, which allows the treatment of pathologies of said joint. Through minimal incisions in the patient's skin, the joint can be visualized in its entirety.

The introduction of an arthroscope sends the image to a high-resolution screen, through which the specialist traumatologist views the patient's knee.

The diagnosis of the pathology is made, and the surgical instruments necessary for its treatment are introduced.

There are various pathologies that can be treated through knee arthroscopy, offering good results and improving the patient's quality of life. Some of them are:

    • Traumatic meniscopathies

This pathology is related to the menisci, which are cartilaginous structures located between the femur and the tibia.

It arises from turning movements with the foot fixed on the ground and usually occurs mainly in young people and athletes. The most common symptoms are joint locking, pain when flexing or extending, and crunching at the time of injury.

    • meniscus tears

As we have explained previously, the meniscus is a cartilaginous structure found in the knee. This pathology is a consequence of extreme torsion with the foot placed on the ground. The symptoms are the same as those of meniscopathies.

    • Cruciate ligament injuries

They are sprains or tears of the ligament. In most cases it is a consequence of changes in direction, jumps and other movements that can occur in certain sports. The symptoms that characterize it are swelling, severe pain or loss of movement.

    • Chondral lesions or articular cartilage lesions of the knee

These injuries occur as a result of damage to the articular cartilage, which covers the surface of the joint. The most common symptoms are joint pain, effusions or inflammation and locking in the knee.

    • Joint chondromalacias

This pathology is also known as chondromalacia patellae. It is a condition on the surface of the cartilage of the kneecap. The symptoms that help detect this injury are discomfort around the kneecap, knee failure, and knee effusions, among other symptoms.

Preoperative knee arthroscopy

The prior study takes on special importance. Before undergoing knee arthroscopy, it will be necessary to perform different diagnostic tests to diagnose the patient's pathology and the exact location.

Some tests that are usually performed before knee arthroscopy are:

  • Hemogram: also known as a blood test, in which different important parameters in the blood are evaluated before performing knee arthroscopy.
  • Simple x-ray: to detect breaks or abnormalities in the knee.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging: with this method, lesions in soft tissues can be observed.

Postoperative after minimally invasive knee surgery

The postoperative period after knee arthroscopy offers good results and, thanks to the minimal incisions, the patient's recovery will be faster.

Usually, the patient is discharged a few hours after the intervention, once the effects of the anesthesia have ended. In some cases, rehabilitative treatment is recommended, supervised by a specialized physiotherapist to improve mobility and strengthen the patient's joint.

Recovery after knee arthroscopy is faster compared to open surgery, since, as it involves minimal incisions, the risk of infections is reduced. In addition, this type of surgery is less aggressive and has minimal negative effects on the patient's tissues.

The patient will have to attend periodic check-ups in which the traumatologist specialized in the knee verifies that the recovery is favorable.

Tips for recovery after knee arthroscopy

Recovery will always vary depending on the case, since not all bodies function the same way.

Some warnings to keep in mind are to avoid standing for a long period, do not take medication that has not been previously recommended by the professional, avoid getting the wounds wet until they are healed, and finally, use crutches for the first few days to avoid support your leg at any time. Furthermore, when appropriate, the exercises that have been recommended by the specialist should be performed, ensuring that the recovery after knee arthroscopy last as little as possible.

What is the meniscus?

The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between the tibia and the femur; it usually breaks with sudden movements.

Meniscus surgery, also known as meniscectomy, is a knee arthroscopy operation, in which incisions are made in the joint through which the arthroscope (instrument that sends images directly to the monitor) will be introduced for complete repair of the injury.

The duration of the internal meniscus operation is usually approximately 30-40 minutes, this varies depending on the severity of each case.

Recovery from meniscus arthroscopy usually takes around three weeks, during which time the leg should not be supported during that time. The first week is crucial for a good recovery, in which complete rest must be maintained.

In the case of the anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the injury is caused by forced hyperextension of the knee ligaments. This trauma can occur in isolation or as a consequence of a torn meniscus, which can lead to greater severity of the pathology.

Anterior cruciate ligament operation It is carried out through removal of the torn ligament and replaced by a graft of tissue from the patient or a donor. This donated tissue is also known by the name “allograft”.

Why are meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament injuries so common in athletes?

These two injuries arise as a result of playing sports in which numerous turns and sudden stops are made with the foot fixed on the ground, more specifically in sports such as football or basketball.

At the time of the injury, a sharp noise and severe pain accompanied by stiffness in the knee will be triggered, preventing it from being stretched.

Meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament operation recovery time

Recovery from both pathologies is usually quite quick, since since it is an operation using minimally invasive knee surgery, there is no need to open the joint completely and therefore the patient will not suffer as much pain as in an open knee operation. .

The approximate rest time is around 1 or 2 months, although this time will depend on each specific case.

Traumatologists expert in knee arthroscopy

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